History of the Battle of Peleliu

Battle of Peleliu, Endnotes

By: Dylan A. Cyr

This article was reprinted with permission from Mr. Cyr.

About the Author

Dylan A. Cyr is a Doctoral Candidate at the University of Western Ontario. He is currently working on the dissertation phase of his Ph.D. His dissertation focuses on the environmental affects and daily living conditions on the men of the 1st Marine Division in the Pacific War. He has lectured and written on a variety of Second World War topics, including American soldier experience, the atomic bombs, and war and social memory.


1  Paul Addison and Angus Calder (editors), Time To Kill: The Soldier's Experience of War in the West, 1939-1945 , (UK: Pimlico, 1997), xi. The "sharp end" is a useful term to explain the actual "edge" of a war, but usually in reference to soldier experience.
2  Bill D. Ross, Peleliu: Tragic Triumph , (New York: Random House, 1991), 113.
3  Ross, 113-114.
4  Ross, 120.
5  Dai Nippon translates into "Greater Japan" and refers to the proper name of the Japanese Empire in World War II.
6  Ross, 6.
7  Operation Stalemate had been planned at the Quebec Conference (code-named "Quadrant") in August 1943 by FDR, British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, and the Allied Combined Chiefs of Staff.
8  Joseph H. Alexander, Storm Landings: Epic Amphibious Battles in the Central Pacific , (Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press,1997), 105.
9  Alexander, 108.
10  Alexander, 108.
11  Alexander, 108.
12  Alexander, 109.
13  Alexander, 110. Alexander explains in his Textual Notes , on page 215, that Kazumi Kuzuhara's "Operations on Iwo Jima: Utility of Combat Lessons," a paper delivered in 1990, has an "outstanding summary of Japanese anti-amphibious research. including the conversion from water's edge tactics to 'endurance engagements' featuring Fukkaku honeycombed underground defenses."
14  Alexander, 110.
15  Alexander, 110.
16  Alexander, 110.
17  Alexander, 110.
18  Alexander, 110.
19  Eugene B. Sledge, With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa , (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990 [1981]), 59. Sledge explained that a DUKW was a "rubber-tired amphibious truck."
20  Sledge, 59.
21  George McMillan, The Old Breed: A History of The First Marine Division in World War Two , (Washington: Zenger Publishing Co. Inc., 1979 [1949]), 285.
22  McMillan, 289.
23  McMillan, 297.
24  Sledge, 144.
25  Sledge, 144. DDT was not known to be harmful to humans at the time
26  Sledge, 142.
27  Alexander, 123.
28  Alexander, 123. Obtained from Hiroshi Funasaka's Falling Blossoms (1986).
29  Alexander, 124.
30  Alexander, 125.
31  Peleliu was the only contested beach landing for the 1 st Marine Division in the Pacific War.
32  Alexander, 108.
33  See Bill D. Ross' Peleliu: Tragic Triumph (1991) and Nathan Miller's The War at Sea: A Naval History of World War II (1995).
34  James L. Stokesbury, A Short History of World War II , (New York: Perennial, 2001 [1980]), 341.
35  H. P. Willmott, The Second World War in the Far East , (Cassell & Co, 2000 [1999]).
36  Elizabeth-Anne Wheal and Stephen Pope, The Macmillan Dictionary of The Second World War (Second Edition), (London: Macmillan, 1997 [1989]), 354 and 355.